25 September 2013

Materials and Manufacturing process for everyday use

Some questions regarding materials were frequently asked in CEED exams and even some times their manufacturing process were also asked to test students degree of observation on everyday-use basic products/materials. So, It is important for you to go through some basic details about materials to crack Part - A. 

Lets take some day-to-day used products and mention their material along with the process being employed to make the product.

<< back to CEED resource page

Milk, water bottles and containers
  • Process : Blow molding (Extrusive nature)
  • Material : Polyethylene (high density)

  (HDPE bottles - http://www.hdpe-containers.com)

(Multi purpose bottles - http://wikipedia.org)

(Milk bottles - http://www.wrapcymru.org.uk)

High density water bottles were also used for detergents, shampoos, motor oil, milk, drugs, cosmetic and other liquid products.

Soft packaging material 
  • Process : Extrusion
  • Material : Polystyrene foam

(Disposable glass - http://www.plasticstoday.com)

Beverage and perfume bootles
  • Process : Extrusion
  • Material : Aluminium

Tea cups, glass or mugs
Ceramic cups are ideal for coffee or hot drinks
  • Process : Slip casting mold
  • Material : Ceramic (Porcelain)

Water Glass 
  • Process: Press molding
  • Material : Glass (silica)
(Water Glass - http://www.istockphoto.com)

Glass Jars

narrow-neck containers
  • Process : Blow molding - blow and blow method
  • material : Molten glass (silica)
Jars and tapered narrow-neck containers
  • Process : Press and blow method 
  • Material : Molten glass (silica)
Hollow Plastic Chairs
  • Process : Rotational molding
  • Material : PVC (Poly vinyl chloride)
(Hollow chairs - http://aliimg.com)

Solid Plastic Chairs
  • process : Injection molding
  • material : PVC


OK, as we had seen materials used for some basic household products, we will now see process-wise examples (below).

(A) Process : Thermoforming technique

Examples : Disposable plastic cups, spoons, forks and lids
Material : Polypropylene or Polystyrene sheets
(used for Ice-cream, dairy products, industries, hotels canteens as disposable products including packing items)

(Thermoformed disposables - http://www.brown-machine.com)

Others products from Thermoforming process are :
  1. Containers, trays - Polystyrene.
  2. Food packing - Polypropylene.
  3. Blisters - Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
  4. vehicle doors - PVC.
  5. Medical tray and lid products 

(Poly carbonate medical trays - http://www.ecpplastictrays.com)

Other products from this process being refrigerator liners, some medical and industrial products.

(B) Process : Injection molding

Most of the plastic products available today are made by this process.
(Injection moldings - http://www.packaging-int.com)

Examples :
  • Bottle caps - Polyester
  • One-piece chairs - Polypropylene
(One piece chair - http://www.designboom.com)
  • Small tables - Ploy vinyl chloride (PVC)
For storage containers avoid using PVC, polystyrene and Polyurethane.  
  • Packaging - Polyethylene

(Package box - http://www.kwhplast.com)
  • Automotive dashboards - Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC)
  • Wire spools - Nylon
  • Plastic household chairs and furniture's - Polypropylene

(C) Process : Rotational molding

  • Storage tanks - polyethylene
  • road signs and bollards - Acrylic
  • Bins - Polyethylene
  • helmets - Fiber reinforced polymer
  • Other examples : Planters, pet houses, toys etc.

(D) Process : Extrusion

Remember Extrusion process create objects having a fixed cross-sectional profile (not having tapering or varying section) and commonly extruded materials are metals, polymers, ceramics etc.

(Sample extrusions - http://itradeget.com)

Examples :
  1. Corrosion free rods, automobile parts, pipe fittings; material - Aluminium
  2. Wire, rods, bars, tubes and welding electrodes; material : copper
  3. Plastic tubing pipes, rods, rails, seals, sheets or films; material : Plastic (PVC)
  4. Fire extinguisher cases, shock absorb cylinders.

(E) Process : Transfer molding

(Usually Themoset plastics were used)
Examples : electrical appliance parts, electronic connectors, coils, Integrated circuits, Plugs, Utensil handles - Polypropylene

(G) Process : Blow molding

Blow molding mainly produces "Hollow plastic" parts.
  • water and milk bottles - Polyethylene (high density)
  • Most Polyethylene hollow products, milk bottles, shampoo bottles, watering cans and drums

Now, for further detailed study on materials, I had elaborated the most examples for the most commonly used everyday material - Plastics.

Plastics (commonly termed as Polymers) were basically categorized as Thermoplastics and Thermosets.

  • Properties : Harder, durable tough and light
  • Examples : 
  1. Unsaturated polyester - Furniture, varnishes
  2. Epoxies and Resins : Glues, coatings for electric circuits, pipes and cables
  3. Fiberglass : boats, helicopter blades
(Thermosets cannot be reused, because when re-heated the plastic tends to break)


Properties : softer, flexible
(Unlike Thermosets, Thermoplastics can be heated, melted as well as reused)

Polyethylene :
Examples : 
packaging, electrical insulation, milk and water bottles, milk jugs and jug, caps, packaging film, liquid laundry detergent bottles, gas pipes and fittings as well as retail store bags.
Some other products are tubs, portable gasoline cans, water and sewer pipes.
Polypropylene :
Examples : 
Carpet fibers, automobile bumpers, microwave containers, prosthetic body parts, rope, piping systems, car batteries as well as insulation for electric cables.
Most of the reusable plastic food containers and clear storage bins were made from PP.
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) :
Examples :
Floor and wall coverings, cards (debit and credit), vehicle meter panels. Plasticized form of PVC may be used for making hoses, tubing, coats, jackets and more. 
Most of the PVC material is used in the construction industry like for drain pipes, roofing sheets etc.
Polystyrene :
One of the most widely used kinds of plastic. Can be transparent or any color.
Example : Bakery, dairy type of food packaging, disposable cups, lids, plates, bowls and trays (like for meat and egg).
Some important thermoplastic materials were :

Acrylic :
Products : Aquariums, motorcycle helmet visor, aircraft windows, lens of exterior lights of automobiles. Extensively used to make signs, lettering and logos.
Nylon and Nylon fibers:
Products : Parachutes, rope, carpets and musical instrument strings. In bulk form Nylon is used for machine screws, gear wheels and power tool casings.
Teflon :
Is mostly used as lubricants as well as coatings for mechanical parts like gears, bearings and bushings.

Other online resources

  1. Every day materials - here>>
  2. Plastic materials and manufacturing process - A very good guide for household plastic materials and their manufacturing process. You may not go through manufacturing process, just note for what material, what particular manufacturing process is employed - here>>
  3. Tips for selecting plastic materials - here>>
Note : 
Some data in this page were sourced from http://en.wikipedia.org

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  1. nice post...thanks for this

  2. Replies
    1. Thanks and keep watching for my other posts ....

  3. hie...how can i get its pdf...

    1. Please save this page. That might help you .... :)

  4. Thank you soooooo much for the effort you put in to make this blog. It is of great help to me for the preparation of ceed exam.

  5. Great......thank you



    1. Hi Shashidar,

      Unfortunately I don't know much about job and pay prospects of the two fields. But, since both the streams seems un-related, I strongly suggest you to look for your passionate stream, rather than just depending on pay or job prospects. Both are having good scope. Choose the one; which you are good at, the one which keeps you satisfied and encourages you to work more ! Because without passion or interest, getting into even a highly-paid job is useless, you will only end-up with frustration. I prefer Architectural and Spatial Design stream, as I'm much interested in that than ID. It's your turn now !

  7. What exactly the stream ARCHITECTURAL AND SPATIAL DESIGN include..

    1. Shashidar,

      Let me explain you in two stages. I will tell you the functionality of individual streams
      Architecture - is all about the design and construction of buildings or any other structural members. It also deals with the planning for design and construction. An architectural engineer plans and design the style of structures in a planned manner.

      Spatial Design - It is the design for space between the interior and exterior parts of the designed structure. In other words it holds the functionality of Interior design, general architectural design as well as landscape design

      Now, club the two to get your answer. 'Architectural and spatial design' relates to designing and engineering a structure considering the interior and exterior space as well. I hope you understood this.

      One more thing, being an architecture or any other civil designer (for works like spatial and interior design etc) you can be a practitioner, in other words you can stand on your own heels ! Most architectural designers does this. But as a Industrial designer, you will have less chance of opening your own practition. Remember, only those whom have very good architectural abilities would turn up as a successful practitioner !!!

    2. I forgot to say a thing,

      To get more idea about this and to check whether you have interests in the above streams or not, just search for some examples or samples or projects in Google or in Google images. Go through some examples/projects and understand what actually the designer do as a Architecture. Do the same thing for Industrial design too and you will clearly get to know about your own interest !

  8. Thank You very much for sharing this :)

  9. Hi!
    You are doing a great job and all the best!
    I am also working with L&T and did the same work of laying pipelines( Hydrocarbon division). I recently quit the job because it was not of my field of interest which is Product Design. i have only 10 days in hand and have just started my preparation for CEED. Your blog has proven to be the best I have come across.
    If I don't qualify the exam I will be jobless. Do you know about any courses which I can pursue, after the exam which will add to my portfolio and take me a step further into product designing.

  10. Hello Prashant,

    Great to hear that you are a pipeline engineer, you might have experienced the heat of L&T ;)

    Other than CEED, I always consider GATE exam being best compared to others even NID, to be frank, I always gave GATE first preference ! Through your GATE score, you can apply to some mdes courses in some IIT's, you may also check product design program in IIT Chennai, if that is related to you. Although I can say 10 days is not less to prepare for CEED, it depends on your level of design thinking and sketching, You can prepare for Part A in just two days ! You have all the resource here, just focus on part b design and sketch works and the time limit. You can definitely crack CEED with will :) last year I cracked CEED with just 2-3 days preparation and you know I'm average in sketching. Just go ahead, all d best :)

  11. Does iit bombay consider gate score.?

  12. thanks a lot for such valueble information...!
    you are helping others that is very nice job.
    keep posting... :)

  13. Please include more logos sir

    1. there are many logo's list in this blog. Chk either CEED/UCEED resources page!

  14. sir i am 4th year student can i sit in ceed 2017

  15. Sir,
    How can soft packaging materials, beverage and perfume bottles be manufactured by extrusion process since this process is used only for creating objects of fixed cross sectional profile?

    1. actually by my knowledge, first it is extruded in mold , then it passes through blow molding process!

  16. All the stuff on this blog is very much helpful, thank u so much for all the efforts.

  17. Hello Sir,
    I have read materials and manufacturing provided on this post. Apart from this if it is required can you suggest something more on the topic?

    1. I've included everything that i collected in this page. I will chk if I can collect more but probably after this exam :|

  18. hello sir...any suggestionstips or topucs for ceed 2020 exam...please share

    1. all materials available here

  19. best website ever for any design exams. Thankyou so much for all your help!


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