11 October 2013

Photography guide for Part-A

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This article is meant, only to act as a guide for those attempting CEED exam in India, and is not meant for regular/professional photographers. The photographers may check the reference at the end of this page for detailed knowledge and guide on photography. 

You may also  get the PDF format of this page at the end of this section.

Types of cameras


Compact Digital Cameras 
  • Slower shutter release speeds
  • Fully automatic photography
  • No lense change
  • compact in size

Compact Digital cameras - http://www.techdigest.tv

Advanced Digital Cameras
  • Many different sizes and shapes
  • Good quality zoom lenses
  • Can be manually controlled
  • No lense change


SLR & DSLR (Digital Single Lens Reflex)
  • Lenses can be changed
  • Fully manual operation (thus more control over taking shots)

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Types of Lens 


Standard/Normal Lens 
  • Fixed focal length (50, 85 and 100 mm) 
  • Best for general use and portraits.
source - exposure guide


Wide Angle Lens
  • Shorter focal length (10 to 42mm)
  • Best for outdoor landscapes, interiors and group portraits


Telephoto Lens
  • Focal length (100 to 800 mm)
  • Best for wildlife, portrait, sports and documentaries.


Zoom Lens - variable focal lengths

source - exposure guide

Fish-eye Lens
  • Focal lengths (7 to 16mm; i.e wide angle)
  • Provides extremely wide images by changing straight lines into curves. 
  • It some times produces circular, convex or oval images.

Macro Lens
  • Focal lengths (50 to 200mm)
  • Used to take larger images of butterflies, bees and flowers


Tilt-Shift Lens
  • Used for shooting buildings and to alter the perspective of an image. 
  • It also helps you to focus selectively on an image.


Image-Stabilization Lens
  • Used for correcting camera shakes when shooting objects with longer focal lengths, slower shutter speeds or in low light conditions.

(Material Source and Image source - http://www.exposureguide.com/lens-basics.htm)

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Basic Photography terms


Exposure

Usually the word "Exposure" is used to refer the recorded image on film (or digital media). A correct exposure means proper "Aperture" and "Shutter speed" and "ISO". Natural light act as better dependent for exposure.

Aperture

It determines how much light the lens transmits to the image sensor. A lens with a larger maximum aperture is called a "fast lens". This type of lens lets more light, focus faster and are sharper. A lens with a small maximum aperture is called "Slow lens". They are less sharp, focus slowly.

Shutter Speed (exposure time)

The length of time a camera's shutter is open when taking a photo. 
Slower shutter speeds are often selected to suggest movement in a still photograph of a moving subject. The moving objects will appear unclear and blur, while the remaining portion appears neat. Also used for taking images in darker light conditions (exposures) so as to take clear pictures by allowing more light. 


Fast shutter speeds

Moving images appear unnaturally frozen. Means you can capture even minute details of moving objects like the one shown below.


Panning

Panning is a technique where the moving object has been followed (camera moving) so as to capture clearly the moving object with a blurred background (usually in shutter mode) as shown below.


The Focal Length 

(expressed in millimeters)
Wide-angle lenses have small focal length (10 or 20 mm), the smaller the number the wider the lens Shorter focal length lenses (say 10 or 20 mm)provide a wider field of view, but provide less magnification. Longer focal lengths (say 200 or 300 mm) provides a shorter field of view, but offer greater magnification. If you want to take a bird really far away, you need to choose a lens of focal length say 300 mm (longer focal lengths). 


ISO

Under ISO, "Film Speed" ratings is the key standard used in most of the photography.
Learn more about photography ISO - here

Depth of Field

Depth of field (DOF) is the distance between the nearest and farthest objects in a scene that appears acceptably sharp in an image. DOF increases with f-number, for example a picture taken with a low f-number will tend to have subjects at one distance in focus, with the rest of the image (nearer and farther elements) out of the focus.

DOF can be described in two ways. Shallow and Deep DOF. Shallow is when the included focus range is very narrow. Deep is when the included range is large. f-stops work a inverse values, such that a small f/number (say f/2.8) corresponds to a larger or wider aperture value, which results in a shallow depth of field. A large f/number (say f/16) results in a smaller or narrower aperture size and therefore a deeper depth of field.

The following two pictures will clear the concept.

source - exposure guide

source - exposure guide 

Famous Indian Photographers

Altaf Qadri, Darogha Ubbas Alli, Subhankar Banerjee, Raghu Rai, Pablo Bartholomew, Ritam Banerjee, Lala Deen Dayal, Benu Sen, Yatin Patel, Raghubir Signh.

Some useful terms

Rephotography :
Is the act of repeat photography of the same site, with a time lag between the two images, a "then and now" view of a particular area.

Aerial Photography :
Taking of photographs of the ground from an elevated position is usually called as "Aerial photography".

Cinematography :
It is the art or science of motion picture and movie photography.

35mm film :

It is the film gauge most commonly used for chemical still photography and motion pictures. Film gauge is a physical property of photographic or motion fim stock which defines its width. The major film gauges in usage are 8mm, 16mm, 35mm and 65/70mm.

The term "135 film" was introduced by Kodak as a designation for the cassette forr 35mm film, specifically for still photography. Other film formats 110, 120, 126, 828 and APS. The 135 film frame size has been adopted by many high-end DSLR cameras, referred as "Full-frame digital SLRs".

Image File formats

  1. JPEG - Joint Photographic Expert Group
  2. TIFF - Tagged Image File Format
  3. RAW

Online resources

  1. Guidelines on lightening for photography - here
  2. More about old age film sizes - here
  3. More about camera lens - here

Download Pdf format of this page - here


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References 

(Also useful as online web resources)

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44 comments:

  1. Man ...u r doing a gr8 job !!!!!
    superb !

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thanks dave and sorry for replying late. Keep watching for my new posts.

      Delete
    2. very usefull website which includes all contents for ceed...
      great job...

      Delete
  2. Thanking u 4 helping aspirants of ceed.u rdoing an incredible job...

    ReplyDelete
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    check this best practices and understand how to improve PageRanks - Backlinks | how to get good PageRanks | Best commenting practices

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  4. Great job bhanu
    hats of 2 u brother
    thr is one question
    r u alumni of IDC IIT Bombay

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thanks Pratik,

      I'm neither an IDC alumni nor related to any other design institutes !

      Delete
  5. But, they will ask this in uceed exam????

    ReplyDelete
  6. bro u doing a big big so on good work for us.....

    ReplyDelete
  7. grt job bhanu sir. the stuff is really helpful...!!

    ReplyDelete
  8. Thank you so much!!! Really helpful and gives a lot of confidence!!! Wish me the best

    ReplyDelete
  9. link for understanding shutter speed
    https://photographylife.com/what-is-shutter-speed-in-photography

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thank you very much for sharing with everyone what you have!

      Delete
  10. great effort (Y) a big thanks for your priceless help and guidance :) very helpful your whole site and all the pages :)

    ReplyDelete
  11. thanks a lot..this was very helpful to us..this is a really appreciable work you have done....mock test papers are helpful..waiting for new one..

    ReplyDelete
  12. its like smart studies..great stuff

    ReplyDelete
  13. Thank you all for the comments, gd luk

    ReplyDelete
  14. Thanks for all the brilliant information!

    ReplyDelete

  15. You have done a great job Bhanu chander

    ReplyDelete
  16. Dear Bhanu chander,

    I am coaching my daughter for taking up 2017 uceed exam. Can you tell me the method and study plan to progress in right direction. Kindly reply asap to schedule her time table.

    ReplyDelete
  17. can not thank you enough for this! great site.

    ReplyDelete
  18. It's nice but more materials are here for CEED .
    Not for NID.

    ReplyDelete
  19. Sir Thankyouu very much!!! U r doing a very big thing !! God bless you!!

    ReplyDelete
  20. Sir it would be great if you add up images taken by a normal lens or standard camera adjacent to those taken by different lenses.It would help us compare what that particular lens does to the image when compared to one taken by a standard common camera.It would help understanding the features of that particular lens...qgain thank you so much for such precise information!

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. that's a good suggestion and desire of yours,
      I would like to know if you will be able to do that after your exam ? it would be great if you at least give a try to that and let us know

      Delete
  21. (As i mentioned in my previous comment),the way you have done for the image-stabilisation lens,it would be great if such adjacent normal camera taken images are provided for every other lens

    ReplyDelete
  22. Hello sir, you have provided design aspirants with some amazing materials. This sunday I am appearing forminute tips? CEED, can you give me some last

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. better check for sure these two videos

      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-uNF43QQ01E

      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ELuYtgb2DTk

      Delete
  23. Its really useful!! Thnk u soo much! Doing an awsme job!

    ReplyDelete
  24. Hello Bhanu sir,
    I am willing to prepare for CEED 2018 this time and so i have started preparing for from now only. And then i found your blog and i couldn't thank you much how beautifully you have arranged all the stuff.
    I just need to ask you one question. As i am new to this website and i want to read each and everything from this knowledge bank, so any recommendations from where i should start?

    ReplyDelete

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